Tag Archives: sports concussions

BMX Racer From California Speaks Out on the Effect Concussion Has Had on Her Life

{ Editor’s note: I first became aware of Sara the night that she crashed racing in Oregon. I got a message from a concerned mutual friend (a Nationally #1 Ranked BMX Racing mutual friend, at that) saying, “Hey, she popped up online and doesn’t sound real good- you should try to get in touch with her right away and encourage her to get checked out/rest/etc.” –  which I did right away. Despite that, Sara is now writing her story for us and has unfortunately become “one of us”.  – Jay }

By Sara Dooley

saraApril 14, 2013. This is the date I will always remember, my life now separated out to “before” and “after.”  If you lose a limb, the disability is tangible to the general population but when it is internal, people chose not to believe. It was the Sunday main even at the Great Northwest Nationals. I had gate 4, my favorite, and knew I had it in the bag to podium.  The gate dropped and off we went, Girls 36-40 Cruiser class. The riders to my left and right were trying to sandwich me in, and I was not giving up my line. I never saw the rider from the outside cut over to the inside until it was too late. I hit her back tire as she passed and off I went, head first into the dirt. About 2-3 hours later is when my memory came back. While I did not pass out, I did have amnesia. My memory came back when the arena was clear and the vendors were taking down their areas. No matter how hard I try, that time is not coming back to me.

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Sara: Out Front in Oregon

After much pushing and prodding from my friends, I went to the Emergency Room that night. It seems I had broken my helmet where I hit and they were concerned there could be bleeding on the brain. The Doctor ordered a brain scan and thankfully there was no bleeding. They referred me to see my Doctor as soon as I made it back home and explained the severity of a concussion.The next morning I made the 12 hour drive home. Little did I know that my life had transformed.

After seeing my primary Doctor I was put in “isolation” as I call it for a week. No work, phone, TV,  lights, loud noises, or reading-just sleep. I thought this would be hard, but with my head hurting so bad, I wasn’t complaining. I literally slept for a week and then went back to work. This is when I realized something wasn’t right. I had a hard time concentrating, jobs that I could breeze through prior, were now difficult. The more I thought of how to process something, the more my head hurt. I still had a black eye and part of my head was bruised so people understood. Also, the injury was “new” so it was understandable and they accommodated the injured me.

As time went by and the bruising healed, my productivity reached the normal level, my personality came back (for the most part) people expected me to be back 100%. What they didn’t/don’t understand is I am not. It has been almost 4 months since my accident. I have to sleep more than most. Everything I do-no matter how simple, tires me out. Most just a little, but sometimes it takes me a week or more to recover. My brain is fried and sleep is the way it heals. It is like being drugged, no caffeine or anything will keep me from having to sleep. People don’t understand that sometime just a day at work wears me out, or spending the day at the track. Simple things that now leave me needing a day worth of sleep to get back to the new normal. My body can no longer regulate heat like it should. I have to use the air conditioning or drink gallons of ice water if I am going to be in higher temperatures. I have a hard time concentrating. I forget words and how to do things I have always known how to do. I have what I call “the wall” when I am trying to explain something. I can see it-and then the wall comes up and I cannot put it into words. The ability is just not there anymore. If I am tired I slur my words, or have a hard time pronouncing them. I can’t handle bright or flashing lights, they are a circuit overload and short out my brain and stop the ability to think in a logical way. I can’t track fast movement, like in action movies. If the music is too loud, it makes my head hurt. I used to listen to my headphones daily at work, but now I have a hard time listening to music and working at the same time. It feels as though it is too much for my brain to process at once. While these all may seem minor issues, they were not how I was before the accident, and people don’t understand there is a valid reason I cant explain something, can’t remember how to do something simple.

In response to my new shortcomings, people sigh, they roll their eyes, they tell me to knock it off. I’m to the point where I don’t explain anymore, I just apologize-for not being the person I was. This is never something someone should have to do. I find I don’t go out much, beyond the obvious of loud music and bright lights I just don’t want to have to explain myself or why I need to go home early because it was too much. I avoid conversations because I know I am lousy at participating if they become detailed. It has changed my life and trying to accept that, and learn how to live with the changes is hard. Every time I go to the Doctors they move my recovery date. It started out as 1-2 months, then 2-3, and now 6-12. They say what hasn’t come back or healed by the 12 month mark is most likely going to be permanent. They want me to accept this and be prepared for it. Every day I think of what might stay and what may heal-which I think I can live with more than others. I wish I didn’t have to think this way. I wish I could express myself and gain understanding from others, not impatience. But again, I look normal…so how can anything be wrong?

 

Jay Fraga Interview With Mike Carruth of BMX News

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On Tuesday, July 23, Mike Carruth of BMX News spoke with Jay Fraga about concussions in sports and why Jay started The Knockout Project. You can download or stream the interview here:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/bmxnews/2013/07/24/bmx-news-announcers-tower-live–july-23-2013-1

CT Lacrosse Player’s Four Year Journey Through Concussion

{ Editor’s note: I’m excited to include a “success story” here on The Knockout Project, as most of the time I’m hearing from people during what are some of the worst moments of their lives. The attached story features Marianna Consiglio’s battle with post-concussion symptoms. It was written just before Marianna and her parents agreed to a revolutionary surgery performed by Dr Ivica Ducic  to ease her suffering- a surgery that, by all accounts, has been very successful. The link included below is to a recent ABC News story that featured Marianna and detailed her surgery experience.
You can take these two pieces as a “before and after”, if you will.

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/doctors-surgery-relieve-lingering-concussion-pain/story?id=19095339

Once things settle down for her, I think we can look for Marianna to write her story here from start to finish. – Jay }

Marianna’s Story

By Erin Leo

mariannaFour years ago, if you had asked Marianna Consiglio what she wanted to be when she grew up, she would have said she wanted to be a teacher.

“I thought it would be fun to be in charge. I was a little bossy when I was younger,” she says, laughing as she recalls her earlier desired profession.

However, if you were to ask her now, the sixteen-year-old would firmly tell you she wants to be a doctor with a concentration in sports medicine, something she never would have considered before her injury.

Nearly four years ago in April of 2009, Marianna stepped out onto the field to play goalie in a youth lacrosse game. Halfway through the game, after already making half a dozen saves, Marianna stepped up to block yet another shot from a girl less than five feet away from her.

She blocked the shot; but it came with a price.

The loud crack as the shot rebounded off Marianna’s helmet made the whole crowd cringe. The force of the ball caused her head to snap back against her helmet, doubling the impact of the hit. Within seconds she was dizzy and had a throbbing headache, but she continued with the game. Afterwards, however, she knew something was very wrong.

“By the time I had gotten home, I was throwing up and could barely see,” she said.

Her mother rushed her to the emergency room where she was diagnosed with a concussion, not an uncommon injury in sports.

“At first I didn’t think it was that big a deal—a lot of kids get concussions and recover without significant issues,” said Laura Consiglio, Marianna’s mother.

However, three months and three different neurologists later, the symptoms from the concussion, specifically the debilitating headaches, had not subsided, and she was referred to Boston Children’s Hospital Sports Injury and Concussion Clinic. An ImPACT test revealed significant cognitive impairment in her visual and verbal memory scores.

“The doctor at Boston told us that the younger the athlete, the longer it generally takes for them to recover from concussions,” recalled Mrs. Consiglio. “He prepared us that it might take up to 12 weeks for her to fully recover, which I remember thinking no way!”

As it turned out, Marianna and her mother are now wishing it had really only taken 12 weeks.

For a year, doctors monitored her cognitive function and prescribed several different medications intended to ease the headaches. By March 2010, she was deemed recovered cognitively, but the headaches had yet to go away. Marianna was then diagnosed with Chronic Daily Migraine. Two years later in 2012, she has since seen seven different neurologists, tried five different naturopathic remedies, and been on countless medications. Still, she experiences near constant headaches and has not gone more than six days without a headache since her initial injury four years ago.

Now, the daily migraines she experiences turn everyday into a battle.

“The hardest part about having the headaches for so long is always missing stuff with my friends and family, and always feeling like I have to explain it to them,” she says.

As a junior in the middle of her high school experience, not being able to hang out with her friends or attend their birthday parties can be hard. It’s a luxury most other students take for granted.

“Although she has occasionally been out to the mall with friends and a couple of Sweet Sixteen’s, she has also missed a lot of social things that go on,” says Mrs. Consiglio. “She has turned some invitations down or left parties early; she doesn’t get to see her friends as much as most others her age.”

Her condition has impacted her family as well. Having gone through all of her ups and downs with her, they hate seeing her in so much pain and are frustrated at the lack of a cure or aid so far.

“It is so frustrating to see her in pain and not be able to do anything to help her,” says her mom. “Or more like, everything I do to try and help her is futile.”

Her older brother, TJ Consiglio, feels the same way.

“Seeing her in pain every day and having trouble helping her get through it is the hardest part,” he says. “You just feel helpless, and that’s the hardest thing to cope with and overcome for all of us.”

However, the biggest obstacle for Marianna and her family so far is school. Though she has a 504, a medical form that allows her to miss school and assignments without consequences, she struggles daily with make-up work and dealing with teachers who don’t understand her condition. She has not been able to attend a full month of school since her injury four years ago.

“I’ve had to come up with totally different school strategies,” she says. “I used to procrastinate to the last minute to start and finish my assignments, but now I know I have to do them right away when I feel good because I don’t know when the next headache is going to come on and prevent me from doing it.”

She goes to a local tutor regularly and has had to finish classes over the summer to receive credit for them. The school has also rearranged her schedule so that she has a free study the first and last period of the day in case she has to come in late or leave early.

“She gets very stressed out about missing and late assignments,” says Mrs. Consiglio. “She is determined to do well and wants her grades to reflect her true ability.”

Despite the many challenges, Marianna has been able to keep up in school and has been able to complete all of her requirements, even if they are just handed in a little later than usual.

“She always has a ton of make-up work, even over the holidays and the summer,” says her brother, TJ. “But she works so hard and always manages to get it done.”

Even more impressive, is the fact that this year she was inducted into the National Honor Society in her high school. NHS requires all of their inductees to have a cumulative GPA of 3.5 and maintain it throughout the rest of their high school career, a feat many normal students cannot achieve, proving just how hard Marianna has worked to continue doing well in school.

After all, she needs to keep up her grades if she wants to pursue her career path of becoming a doctor, and following her dream to help others with similar conditions.

“I’ve missed a lot of school, but I also know that many people wouldn’t be able to keep up their grades like I have, so I am even more determined to become a doctor in sports medicine,” she says. “I know how bad athletes want to get back on the field.”

Perhaps most impressive of all, however, is that despite the amount of pain she is in daily, she doesn’t let it dampen her spirit, and does everything she can not to let it stop her from being a normal kid. She also credits her family, for always being there for her.

“Each one of my family members are my biggest support system,” she explains. “I love them all and couldn’t do it without them.”

Her family continues to hope for a better tomorrow right by her side.

“I am so proud of her determination,” says her mom. “But she is sick of being sick, and I keep hoping that tomorrow will be better for her. I promised her we would not stop until we found a doctor to cure these headaches.”

Even with the many set-backs she has encountered, Marianna has always maintained a positive outlook and believes that she would not be the person who she is today had she not been injured so long ago.

“It has certainly taught me some of my most important lessons in life,” Marianna reflects. “I’ve missed out on a lot, but I’ve also come to realize who my true friends are and what really matters to me.”

The quote she now sets her life by and draws strength from is the one she thinks best describes her whole situation.

“It’s not about waiting for the storm to pass, it’s about learning how to dance in the rain.”

Southcoast MA HS Senior Soccer Player Describes Her Experiences With Concussion

By Lindsey Santos

santosOn October 26th, 2010, I received my first concussion. During a competitive soccer game against one of our conference teams, I was jumping up for a header, pulled down, and then deliberately kicked in back of the head twice, blocking the third kick with my hand. I stood back up on my feet and knew something was wrong. I tried to “shake it off” as any other athlete is taught to do, but when I started throwing up, I jogged myself off the field. When I told my parents I had a headache later on when we arrived back home, they took me into the emergency room to get checked out. During that visit I was diagnosed with a concussion. Already knowing somewhat about concussions, I figured it would be a “normal” two weeks of headaches. Little did I know that two weeks would turn into three months.

I had headaches every day, and I constantly felt tired and confused. My goals had to be set aside to take care of my health. Not being able to go to school caused me to fall behind my peers in the classroom and on the field. After having my concussion for about four weeks, my doctor recommended I go to see a Sports Medicine Specialist at Boston Children’s Hospital. There, I took my first Impact Test. Even though I did well on it, my symptoms clearly showed that I still had a concussion. I followed up every month with him basically just asking questions about how I felt and keeping track of the symptoms. Finally being cleared back to sports in January of 2011, I returned to play basketball for my high school.

After only being cleared fully for a week and half, I received my second concussion. Someone set a pick on me and just completely elbowed me in the process. I immediately knew that I had a concussion because when I got up, I was dizzy and my vision was blurred. But, I stayed in the game because I didn’t want to accept the fact that it had happened. My coach took me out of the game because I was clearly “not right”. The trainer checked me out and held me from going back into the game. Waking up the next morning with a severe headache forced another trip back up to Boston Children’s Hospital.

It was just the same routine as last time- as if I was never cleared. This time the specialist advised that I come up with some sort of agreement with my teachers for help in the subjects that I wasn’t doing well in. My school principal developed a 504 plan that provided me with accommodations to get extra time to take tests and hand in projects. Some of my teachers weren’t aware of my condition though and some major assignments were counted against me. I felt like I didn’t have any control over my life as if a carpet was ripped out from under me. I started to write and draw to help me through my PCS (Post Concussive Syndrome) recovery. During all of this I was also losing my friends. When they would be out having fun, I was stuck at home with a headache crying myself to sleep. They would get mad when I told them I was going to stay home because I didn’t feel well. They started to believe I was faking this concussion to get away with things, like quarterlies, homework, and get-togethers.

After another three months had passed, I was cleared for contact sports again. I was feeling good and healthy, even with two concussions under my belt. Though things felt altered, I was learning to cope and accept it. I could not let my two concussions defeat me any longer. I had to face these obstacles head on and regain control of the things that mattered most in my life. Even though I am still dealing with headaches three years later and break down every once in awhile, I strive to make a difference. I introduced the Impact Test to my school and even though the athletes hate taking them, I know it can make a difference for the better. I also help other students in school who have a concussion. I guide them, and I’m most importantly a friend to them. I don’t want anyone to go through what I did. Going through these challenges has certainly had a large impact on my life. They have prepared me for other bumps in the road that I will face as I live the rest of my life.

“Healing Heads”- Massachusetts HS Junior on Her Concussion Journey

{ Editor’s Note: At the ripe old age of 17, Madeline Uretsky has become a prominent voice in concussion education. She was the subject of a Boston Globe feature story on concussion in January of 2013. Her story has also been highlighted by the Brain Injury Association of Massachusetts, The Salem (MA) News, and a number of concussion-centric websites and blogs. She has spoken publicly on concussion, most recently at the Boston Acquired Brain Injury Support (BABIS) Walk. Madeline is truly a concussion education warrior after our own hearts, and she is an important voice. – Jay}

“Healing Heads”

mad1My name is Madeline Uretsky, and I am a junior at Bishop Fenwick High School in Peabody, MA. What used to be known as “getting your bell rung”, and being told to just “shake it off”, are no longer accepted ways of dealing with concussions.  Thanks to modern research, we know now that concussions are in fact, brain injuries, and must be dealt with as such. They are to be taken seriously, regardless of the severity, because the short term and long term effects can be devastating. Ignoring the symptoms and the mistreatment of them can have lasting effects to the brain, as we have learned from the many NFL players now suffering from the many concussions they sustained, but ignored, while playing. Any subsequent hit to the head before the prior concussion has healed can have profound effects on the brain as I have learned. I am just one of the many thousands of people who have suffered a severe concussion, and whose life has been forever changed by it. You never think it’s going to happen to you.

On October 11, 2011, while playing in my soccer game, I was tripped from behind while sprinting for the ball, fell on my forehead, snapped my neck back, and fell and hit my forehead again in the same place in a matter of seconds. I knew something was wrong immediately, but I had no idea how serious it would be. My symptoms did not become apparent until about 48 hours later. I could not sit up, tolerate any light at all, I was tired, and had an excruciating headache. It has now been a year and seven months since the moment of impact.

I spent the first 3 months of my concussion lying in bed at home, in a dark room, and on complete brain rest. This brain rest meant that I could not watch TV, use a computer, phone, draw, text, read anything, or do any sort of homework or exercise. In other words, I could just sleep, lie in bed, and not go to school.

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At this time, my symptoms were numerous and very high on the symptoms scale at the doctor. I had severe headaches as well as up to 165 very sharp pains all over my head every day. I also had severe whiplash, disorientation, memory loss, extreme fatigue, dizziness, balance problems, trouble following a conversation, ringing in my ears, and I could not tolerate any bright colors, light, or noise of any kind. My sleep at night was erratic and filled with nightmares. You would never know this by just looking at someone with a concussion because they do not have a cast like a broken bone. The brain is still injured but on the outside you look fine.

I went to my pediatrician weekly, and my neurosurgeon monthly, for a symptom evaluation. On a scale of 0-6, I had all 5’s and 6’s during those three months of brain rest; I could not believe how awful I felt. I started going weekly to a massage therapist who practices a type of acupressure that helps brain injured patients. I liked going because it was a way to relax myself, even though it was painful. I continue to go on an as needed basis, and also do many other kinds of alternative therapies that have been helpful such as chiropractic, herbs, speech therapy, balance therapy, eye coordination exercises, and others.

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As these weeks turned into months, it became apparent that there was no end in sight for me. I was isolated from my friends and my school, yet I felt so awful that I accepted that there was just nothing I could do about it, except rest, and wait it out. I had visitors, on a limited basis, but I did not even feel well enough to enjoy myself. I was unable to engage in any kind of conversation, and I would randomly fall asleep. There were times that I could not even remember that I had visitors.

I missed all but five weeks of my sophomore year and I am still not cleared for physical activity other than walking. I did catch up with my schoolwork over the summer of 2012, and now I am on a full schedule at school but with accommodations such as extended time on tests. I took my SAT test without accommodations and that was a challenge. I did some extra preparations to help myself concentrate and have the energy to last the entire test. Overall, it went well and I always wonder how I would have felt during the test if I had not had a concussion. Recently, I also had a setback that kept me out of school for a week after a re-injury to my neck from a visit to the physical therapist. What makes my concussion so severe is that I still have all of my symptoms over a year and a half later, just to a lesser degree. In addition, I have learning disabilities now that I had never had before. Focusing, processing new information, multi-tasking, and comprehending orally are some of them. I am doing much better than I was, but I still have a ways to go. I am hoping to one-day wake up symptom-free.

When you sustain a serious brain injury, your life, and the lives of those around you, are greatly impacted. What you once knew as “normal” no longer exists, things that you could count on for yourself no longer exist, and what you have to do to achieve, and accept, a “new normal”, is a difficult process, both emotionally and physically. I could no longer do any form of physical activity at all, yet I was accustomed to playing sports every day of my life. Before my concussion, I was a very involved and active student – my freshman year, I played soccer, hockey, and winter and spring track.

I decided early on in my recovery that I was going to do whatever the doctors told me, and I was definitely NOT going to let this concussion get the best of me. It’s not who I was before my injury, so I wasn’t going to allow myself to become that person. I was open to any kind of treatment that could help me. As I started to feel a bit better, I began taking baby steps to regain my life. I started to use my computer to reach out to others, as well as to learn more about my brain injury.

Along the way, I decided that there must be other teenagers out there suffering as I was, and who perhaps don’t have the kind of support that I have, so that became my mission – to help them. Life as a teenager is difficult enough, so just imagine being a teenager with up to 165 headaches per day, living in a constant state of fogginess, having memory loss, unable to carry on a conversation without physical pain, sensitivity to light and noise, and generally not being able to live the life I once had.

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Speaking at the Boston Acquired Brain Injury Support Group Walk in Jamaica Plain, October 2012

Returning to school as a student with a brain injury is a very scary proposition. Will people look at me funny? Will they ask me a lot of questions? Will they think I’m faking? – after all, I look fine. These were the many questions that I had before I returned.

My school was so supportive with my accommodations that I decided to write a chapter for a book about concussions in sports, and I have been a regular blogger about various brain injury topics, for several websites. I was the speaker at the 10th annual Brain Injury Walk in Boston in October, and the Pediatric Brain Injury Conference in November. I was featured in Bay State Parenting magazine, the Salem Evening News, and the Boston Globe as well. I will continue my crusade for concussion awareness, because I feel that this has happened to me for a reason, and that is my mission to help others.

As long and difficult as my road to recovery has been, it has also been extremely rewarding. I have been able to mentor, counsel and befriend many other kids with concussions, and this has made me feel so much better. The most important advice I can give is to stay positive because things improve over time. Brain injuries are a work in progress, there may not be a change on a daily basis, but improvement will be seen. Just because life is different than it used to be, it doesn’t mean it isn’t as great – you just have to find a way to make it as great, even if you have to do it differently.

 

Mental Toughness: The Role of the Athletic Mindset in Perpetuating the Concussion Crisis

By Jay Fraga

raceConcussion is a funny thing. As an “invisible” injury, the odds that it will be dismissed by any number of people in a position to do something about it, including the player, are high. It’s difficult to quantify a concussion visually. It is not difficult to quantify a compound fracture of a leg. A concussed person can look you in the eyes and say, “Hey, I’m fine to play. Put me back into the game” and many people will believe them at face value because they don’t have much visual evidence to the contrary.  A player with a compound fracture of the leg could look you in the eyes and say, “Hey, I’m fine to play. Put me back into the game”, and you would instantly know that they’re out of their mind. “Uh, apparently, you didn’t see the gore that is your leg. Forget it”.

So, why is there a difference in reactions among players, coaches, and even many medical personnel between the two injuries?

In terms of long-term ramifications, I’d take a compound fracture of the leg over a concussion any day. Before someone calls me a maniac, I should point out that I’ve suffered badly broken legs as well as multiple concussions and the aftermath is not even close. Brain injuries of any kind need to be avoided at absolutely all costs. This is coming from a man who once thought that learning how to walk again after breaking both legs was the toughest thing that he ever had to do and would ever have to endure again. I was wrong on that one.

On top of the strange denials that invisible injuries like concussions evoke from society at large, the condition also has to contend with athletes who have been trained, many since an early age, to prevail over any obstacle. I’ve read many articles recently where the authors can’t seem to comprehend why players can’t grasp the enormity of concussions and they express shock at such instances. “Football players? They knew what they were signing up for. How could anyone not know that football is a dangerous game?” Right?

Not so fast.

Why can’t athletes grasp the severity of concussions, pull themselves from games, and allow themselves to be properly treated? Take money out of the equation. It’s still pretty simple: Athletes are conditioned mentally to succeed. Successful athletes understand that mind over matter isn’t just a cliché; it’s truly the Law of the Land. Mental toughness is probably the most important ingredient to success in sports. Could there be any other reason why professional team franchises employ sports psychologists to build up their players?

Mental toughness, the very same ingredient that is essential to success in sports, is responsible for the majority of pervasive denial by athletes of the severity of concussions.

As a young, impressionable amateur athlete, the mental toughness that was ingrained in me by my Mother afforded me success. As I won more, the more ingrained that concept became in me. Putting in more effort than my competitors (along with the belief that I was just plain faster than they were) created a little boy that believed that he could surmount any obstacle in front of him simply by willing himself to succeed. That little boy grew up to be a man, and he carried that ethic with him. It served me well in athletics, and it served me well in life; right until the point where I denied the obvious severity of my concussions. To me, they were an annoyance; just another hurdle to get over so that I could prepare for the next race.

Digging into it, I never was consciously aware that there was a problem, or that I was injured beyond something minor. I feel that my mindset allowed me to gloss over details that were serious warning signs as opposed to knowing full well that I was hurt and making a conscious decision to go out and race hurt, further imperiling my health. My friend Kevin Saum wrote about his blurred vision (on top of a host of other symptoms) in a football game where he convinced himself that sweat running into his eye was responsible for it. Further that, I’ve had situations where I’ve been completely knocked out and woken up surrounded by EMT’s who ask, “Are you OK?”, and I’ve reflexively blurted out, “Yes, I’m fine” without even knowing what planet I was on. What’s important is that I wasn’t making a conscious effort to deceive anybody in any of those cases, but there was absolutely some mechanism that was leading to me to speak authoritatively when I had absolutely no clue what I was talking about.

Instances like those lead me to ask the question: As motivated athletes, are our brains tricking us?

As concussion awareness advocates, our mission is two-fold: Along with raising awareness of symptoms and ramifications of concussion, we must also find a way to address the mental toughness conundrum with regard to dismissal of concussion symptoms.  We can’t look expressly to coaches, because coaches were once players too. As such, they’re wired the same way as the athletes are.

It is incredibly hard to teach new dogs new tricks. It’s even harder to teach old dogs new tricks.